Ford is testing a system of lights that can help a self-driving vehicle communicate with the pedestrians around it.

Doing so has necessitated a bit of a comic turn: to ensure the test vehicle (a Transit Connect) looks as much as possible like an autonomous car, it’s being controlled by a driver hidden in what the company calls a “Human Car Seat”.

With the driver not visible, observers can more effectively gauge responses to a roof-mounted light bar that flashes white, purple and turquoise to indicate when the van is driving, about to pull forwards and giving way.


The Human Car Seat is designed to hide the driver. Um, you'd never guess.

“Fundamentally, people need to trust autonomous vehicles and developing one universal visual means of communication is a key to that. Turning someone into a Human Car Seat was one of those ideas when there was a bit of a pause and then the realisation that this was absolutely the best and most effective way of finding out what we needed to know,” says Thorsten Warwel, Ford of Europe core lighting manager.

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The latest testing, in addition to that already carried out in the US, was conducted together with Chemnitz University of Technology, in Germany.

Purple too easily confused with red, according to study. Turquoise is better.


Purple too easily confused with red, according to study. Turquoise is better.

Researchers expanded the tests to check the effectiveness of two other colours, in addition to white; a rooftop location, when the US tests had the lights placed on the top part of the windshield; and situations with further distance, showing the lights up to 500 metres away.

The tests concluded that 60 per cent of 173 people surveyed after encountering the Transit Connect thought it was an autonomous vehicle.

Together with the observed reactions of a further 1600 people, turquoise – more noticeable than white and less easily confused with red than purple – was the preferred colour. There was also a high level of acceptance and trust in the signals, providing a basis from which researchers can further develop the visual language.

Sixty per cent of people who encountered the test Transit thought it was self-driving.


Sixty per cent of people who encountered the test Transit thought it was self-driving.

“Making eye contact is important – but our study showed that first and foremost road users look to see what a vehicle is doing. The next step is to look at how we can ensure the light signals are made clearer and more intuitive,” says Dr Matthias Beggiato, Department of Psychology, at the university.

Trained Human Car Seat drivers kept their eyes on the road through a false head rest and operated a special lever to indicate. An assistant, hidden in the back, also monitored the road as back-up.

In separate tests conducted by Ford together with the automotive lighting and electronics specialist Hella, researchers tested further locations for the lights, such as on the grille and headlamps, though no clear preference emerged.

With the goal of developing a purpose-built self-driving vehicle for deployment first in North America in 2021, Ford is calling for an industry standard for communicating driving intent. The company is collaborating with several industry organisations, including the International Organisation for Standardisation and the Society of Automotive Engineers.

In China, Ford is part of the Apollo program offered by Baidu, China’s top search engine operator, and is working with them to begin testing self-driving cars on designated roads in Beijing and other Chinese cities later this year.

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